Invited Lecture(JSGS)
Sat. November 4th   9:00 - 9:30   Room 5: Portopia Hotel South Wing Ohwada A
Invited Lecture15
Art and surgery
Steven D. Wexner
Cleveland Clinic Florida
In many ways, surgery and art are intimately related and we may consider the practice of surgery as art. Furthermore, science and the scientific method is vitally important in the application and progression of surgical practice.

At a more literal level, the interplay of surgery and fine arts is demonstrated by those surgeons who are accomplished artists. Gerald Marks, MD, a respected colorectal surgeon and founding member of SAGES, was also a watercolor painter whose works had been shown both in the US and internationally in at least 16 major exhibitions. Frank Netter, MD, a surgeon and the artist behind Netter's Anatomy, navigates and simplifies the complexity of surgical anatomy with his beautiful illustrations. Yet another example is William Littler, MD, World War II veteran, pioneering hand surgeon and talented sketch artist.

In a broader sense, the "expression or application of human creative skill and imagination" is intrinsically applicable to surgical innovation and research. Creation of new surgical techniques, the progression of open surgery to robotics, incorporation of AI and use of computer modeling in surgical planning, are all examples of creativity and imagination.

The gradual mastery of surgical technique over years of practice is akin to the painter honing their craft, utilizing new tools, techniques, materials, and colleague collaboration. Ofter in the OR, comments will be made on a "beautiful tissue plane", with observers admiring the work of the surgeon/artist.

The intrinsic scientific method involved in the practice of surgery cannot be understated. From case reports to randomized control trials, adoption of change in surgical practice with varying levels of evidence has been a key part of surgical progression. Nuances in the application of surgical techniques do exist, with sometimes rapid adaption given patient factors, but widely accepted principles based on scientific evidence always guides decision-making.

The performance of the art form of surgery will be described including techniques such as dissection in avascular planes and creation of new anatomy. Specifically, this lecture will include demonstration of restorative proctocolectomy, restorative proctectomy, gracilis muscle interposition, transanal total mesorectal excision, and other art form techniques.

Society generally views scientific pursuits and the arts as two separate entities. Surgery, fundamentally a scientific pursuit, could be seen as an amalgamation of both art and science. The following presentation will explore this nuanced relationship.
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